MISP is not only a software but also a series of data models created by the MISP community. MISP includes a simple and practical information sharing format expressed in JSON that can be used with MISP software or by any other software.

MISP Core Format

The MISP core format is a simple JSON format used by MISP and other tools to exchange events and attributes. The JSON schema 2.4 is described on the MISP core software and many sample files are available in the OSINT feed.

The MISP format is described as Internet-Draft in misp-rfc. The MISP format are described to support the developer or organisation willing to build your own tool supporting the MISP format (as import or export). The standard is built from practical use-cases and the implementation references within the MISP project. The standard is quickly evolving following the MISP implementation.

MISP default attributes and categories

Attribute Categories vs Types

Category Internal reference Targeting data Antivirus detection Payload delivery Artifacts dropped Payload installation
md5       X X X
sha1       X X X
sha256       X X X
filename       X X X
pdb         X  
filename|md5       X X X
filename|sha1       X X X
filename|sha256       X X X
ip-src       X    
ip-dst       X    
hostname       X    
domain       X    
domain|ip            
email-src       X    
email-dst       X    
email-subject       X    
email-attachment       X    
url       X    
http-method            
user-agent       X    
regkey         X  
regkey|value         X  
AS       X    
snort            
pattern-in-file       X X X
pattern-in-traffic       X   X
pattern-in-memory         X X
yara       X X X
vulnerability       X   X
attachment     X X X X
malware-sample       X X X
link X   X X    
comment X X X X X X
text X   X X X X
other X   X X X X
named pipe         X  
mutex         X  
target-user   X        
target-email   X        
target-machine   X        
target-org   X        
target-location   X        
target-external   X        
btc            
iban            
bic            
bank-account-nr            
aba-rtn            
bin            
cc-number            
prtn            
threat-actor            
campaign-name            
campaign-id            
malware-type       X   X
uri            
authentihash       X X X
ssdeep       X X X
imphash       X X X
pehash       X   X
sha224       X X X
sha384       X X X
sha512       X X X
sha512/224       X X X
sha512/256       X X X
tlsh       X   X
filename|authentihash       X X X
filename|ssdeep       X X X
filename|imphash       X X X
filename|pehash       X X X
filename|sha224       X X X
filename|sha384       X X X
filename|sha512       X X X
filename|sha512/224       X X X
filename|sha512/256       X X X
filename|tlsh       X X X
windows-scheduled-task         X  
windows-service-name         X  
windows-service-displayname         X  
whois-registrant-email            
whois-registrant-phone            
whois-registrant-name            
whois-registrar            
whois-creation-date            
targeted-threat-index            
mailslot            
pipe            
ssl-cert-attributes            
x509-fingerprint-sha1       X X X
Category Persistence mechanism Network activity Payload type Attribution External analysis Financial fraud
md5         X  
sha1         X  
sha256         X  
filename X       X  
pdb            
filename|md5         X  
filename|sha1         X  
filename|sha256         X  
ip-src   X     X  
ip-dst   X     X  
hostname   X     X  
domain   X     X  
domain|ip   X     X  
email-src            
email-dst   X        
email-subject            
email-attachment            
url   X     X  
http-method   X        
user-agent   X     X  
regkey X       X  
regkey|value X       X  
AS   X     X  
snort   X     X  
pattern-in-file   X     X  
pattern-in-traffic   X     X  
pattern-in-memory         X  
yara            
vulnerability         X  
attachment   X     X  
malware-sample         X  
link         X  
comment X X X X X X
text X X X X X X
other X X X X X X
named pipe            
mutex            
target-user            
target-email            
target-machine            
target-org            
target-location            
target-external            
btc           X
iban           X
bic           X
bank-account-nr           X
aba-rtn           X
bin           X
cc-number           X
prtn           X
threat-actor       X    
campaign-name       X    
campaign-id       X    
malware-type            
uri   X        
authentihash            
ssdeep            
imphash            
pehash            
sha224            
sha384            
sha512            
sha512/224            
sha512/256            
tlsh            
filename|authentihash            
filename|ssdeep            
filename|imphash            
filename|pehash            
filename|sha224            
filename|sha384            
filename|sha512            
filename|sha512/224            
filename|sha512/256            
filename|tlsh            
windows-scheduled-task            
windows-service-name            
windows-service-displayname            
whois-registrant-email       X    
whois-registrant-phone       X    
whois-registrant-name       X    
whois-registrar       X    
whois-creation-date       X    
targeted-threat-index            
mailslot            
pipe            
ssl-cert-attributes            
x509-fingerprint-sha1   X   X X  
Category Other
md5  
sha1  
sha256  
filename  
pdb  
filename|md5  
filename|sha1  
filename|sha256  
ip-src  
ip-dst  
hostname  
domain  
domain|ip  
email-src  
email-dst  
email-subject  
email-attachment  
url  
http-method  
user-agent  
regkey  
regkey|value  
AS  
snort  
pattern-in-file  
pattern-in-traffic  
pattern-in-memory  
yara  
vulnerability  
attachment  
malware-sample  
link  
comment X
text X
other X
named pipe  
mutex  
target-user  
target-email  
target-machine  
target-org  
target-location  
target-external  
btc  
iban  
bic  
bank-account-nr  
aba-rtn  
bin  
cc-number  
prtn  
threat-actor  
campaign-name  
campaign-id  
malware-type  
uri  
authentihash  
ssdeep  
imphash  
pehash  
sha224  
sha384  
sha512  
sha512/224  
sha512/256  
tlsh  
filename|authentihash  
filename|ssdeep  
filename|imphash  
filename|pehash  
filename|sha224  
filename|sha384  
filename|sha512  
filename|sha512/224  
filename|sha512/256  
filename|tlsh  
windows-scheduled-task  
windows-service-name  
windows-service-displayname  
whois-registrant-email  
whois-registrant-phone  
whois-registrant-name  
whois-registrar  
whois-creation-date  
targeted-threat-index  
mailslot  
pipe  
ssl-cert-attributes  
x509-fingerprint-sha1  

Categories

  • Internal reference: Reference used by the publishing party (e.g. ticket number)
  • Targeting data: Targeting information to include recipient email, infected machines, department, and or locations.
  • Antivirus detection: List of anti-virus vendors detecting the malware or information on detection performance (e.g. 13/43 or 67%). Attachment with list of detection or link to VirusTotal could be placed here as well.
  • Payload delivery: Information about the way the malware payload is initially delivered, for example information about the email or web-site, vulnerability used, originating IP etc. Malware sample itself should be attached here.
  • Artifacts dropped: Any artifact (files, registry keys etc.) dropped by the malware or other modifications to the system
  • Payload installation: Location where the payload was placed in the system and the way it was installed. For example, a filename md5 type attribute can be added here like this: c:\windows\system32\malicious.exe 41d8cd98f00b204e9800998ecf8427e.
  • Persistence mechanism: Mechanisms used by the malware to start at boot. This could be a registry key, legitimate driver modification, LNK file in startup
  • Network activity: Information about network traffic generated by the malware
  • Payload type: Information about the final payload(s). Can contain a function of the payload, e.g. keylogger, RAT, or a name if identified, such as Poison Ivy.
  • Attribution: Identification of the group, organisation, or country behind the attack
  • External analysis: Any other result from additional analysis of the malware like tools output Examples: pdf-parser output, automated sandbox analysis, reverse engineering report.
  • Financial fraud: Financial Fraud indicators, for example: IBAN Numbers, BIC codes, Credit card numbers, etc.
  • Other: Attributes that are not part of any other category

Types

  • md5: You are encouraged to use filename md5 instead. A checksum in md5 format, only use this if you don’t know the correct filename
  • sha1: You are encouraged to use filename sha1 instead. A checksum in sha1 format, only use this if you don’t know the correct filename
  • sha256: You are encouraged to use filename sha256 instead. A checksum in sha256 format, only use this if you don’t know the correct filename
  • filename: Filename
  • pdb: Microsoft Program database (PDB) path information
  • filename!md5: A filename and an md5 hash separated by a (no spaces)
  • filename!sha1: A filename and an sha1 hash separated by a (no spaces)
  • filename!sha256: A filename and an sha256 hash separated by a (no spaces)
  • ip-src: A source IP address of the attacker
  • ip-dst: A destination IP address of the attacker or C&C server. Also set the IDS flag on when this IP is hardcoded in malware
  • hostname: A full host/dnsname of an attacker. Also set the IDS flag on when this hostname is hardcoded in malware
  • domain: A domain name used in the malware. Use this instead of hostname when the upper domain is important or can be used to create links between events.
  • domain!ip: A domain name and its IP address (as found in DNS lookup) separated by a (no spaces)
  • email-src: The email address (or domainname) used to send the malware.
  • email-dst: A recipient email address that is not related to your constituency.
  • email-subject: The subject of the email
  • email-attachment: File name of the email attachment.
  • url: url
  • http-method: HTTP method used by the malware (e.g. POST, GET, …).
  • user-agent: The user-agent used by the malware in the HTTP request.
  • regkey: Registry key or value
  • regkey!value: Registry value + data separated by
  • AS: Autonomous system
  • snort: An IDS rule in Snort rule-format. This rule will be automatically rewritten in the NIDS exports.
  • pattern-in-file: Pattern in file that identifies the malware
  • pattern-in-traffic: Pattern in network traffic that identifies the malware
  • pattern-in-memory: Pattern in memory dump that identifies the malware
  • yara: Yara signature
  • vulnerability: A reference to the vulnerability used in the exploit
  • attachment: Please upload files using the Upload Attachment button.
  • malware-sample: Please upload files using the Upload Attachment button.
  • link: Link to an external information
  • comment: Comment or description in a human language. This will not be correlated with other attributes
  • text: Name, ID or a reference
  • other: Other attribute
  • named pipe: Named pipe, use the format .\pipe<PipeName>
  • mutex: Mutex, use the format \BaseNamedObjects<Mutex>
  • target-user: Attack Targets Username(s)
  • target-email: Attack Targets Email(s)
  • target-machine: Attack Targets Machine Name(s)
  • target-org: Attack Targets Department or Organization(s)
  • target-location: Attack Targets Physical Location(s)
  • target-external: External Target Organizations Affected by this Attack
  • btc: Bitcoin Address
  • iban: International Bank Account Number
  • bic: Bank Identifier Code Number
  • bank-account-nr: Bank account number without any routing number
  • aba-rtn: ABA routing transit number
  • bin: Bank Identification Number
  • cc-number: Credit-Card Number
  • prtn: Premium-Rate Telephone Number
  • threat-actor: A string identifying the threat actor
  • campaign-name: Associated campaign name
  • campaign-id: Associated campaign ID
  • malware-type:
  • uri: Uniform Resource Identifier
  • authentihash: You are encouraged to use filename authentihash instead, authenticode executable signature hash, only use this if you don’t know the correct filename
  • ssdeep: You are encouraged to use filename ssdeep instead. A checksum in the SSDeep format, only use this if you don’t know the correct filename
  • imphash: You are encouraged to use filename imphash instead. A hash created based on the imports in the sample, only use this if you don’t know the correct filename
  • pehash: PEhash - a hash calculated based of certain pieces of a PE executable file
  • sha224: You are encouraged to use filename sha224 instead. A checksum in sha224 format, only use this if you don’t know the correct filename
  • sha384: You are encouraged to use filename sha384 instead. A checksum in sha384 format, only use this if you don’t know the correct filename
  • sha512: You are encouraged to use filename sha512 instead. A checksum in sha512 format, only use this if you don’t know the correct filename
  • sha512/224: You are encouraged to use filename sha512/224 instead. A checksum in sha512/224 format, only use this if you don’t know the correct filename
  • sha512/256: You are encouraged to use filename sha512/256 instead. A checksum in sha512/256 format, only use this if you don’t know the correct filename
  • tlsh: You are encouraged to use filename tlsh instead. A checksum in the Trend Micro Locality Sensitive Hash format, only use this if you don’t know the correct filename
  • filename!authentihash: A checksum in md5 format
  • filename!ssdeep: A checksum in ssdeep format
  • filename!imphash: Import hash - a hash created based on the imports in the sample.
  • filename!pehash: A filename and a PEhash separated by a pipe
  • filename!sha224: A filename and a sha-224 hash separated by a pipe
  • filename!sha384: A filename and a sha-384 hash separated by a pipe
  • filename!sha512: A filename and a sha-512 hash separated by a pipe
  • filename!sha512/224: A filename and a sha-512/224 hash separated by a pipe
  • filename!sha512/256: A filename and a sha-512/256 hash separated by a pipe
  • filename!tlsh: A filename and a Trend Micro Locality Sensitive Hash separated by a pipe
  • windows-scheduled-task: A scheduled task in windows
  • windows-service-name: A windows service name. This is the name used internally by windows. Not to be confused with the windows-service-displayname.
  • windows-service-displayname: A windows service’s displayname, not to be confused with the windows-service-name. This is the name that applications will generally display as the service’s name in applications.
  • whois-registrant-email: The e-mail of a domain’s registrant, obtained from the WHOIS information.
  • whois-registrant-phone: The phone number of a domain’s registrant, obtained from the WHOIS information.
  • whois-registrant-name: The name of a domain’s registrant, obtained from the WHOIS information.
  • whois-registrar: The registrar of the domain, obtained from the WHOIS information.
  • whois-creation-date: The date of domain’s creation, obtained from the WHOIS information.
  • targeted-threat-index:
  • mailslot: MailSlot interprocess communication
  • pipe: Pipeline (for named pipes use the attribute type “named pipe”)
  • ssl-cert-attributes: SSL certificate attributes
  • x509-fingerprint-sha1: X509 fingerprint in SHA-1 format

MISP Taxonomies

Along with the core format, MISP taxonomies provide a set of already defined classifications modeling estimative language, CSIRTs/CERTs classifications, national classifications or threat model classification. The fixed taxonomies provide a practical method to tag efficiently events and attributes within a set of MISP instances where taxonomies can be easily cherry-picked or extended to meet the local requirements of an organization or a specific sharing community. When using MISP, the MISP taxonomies are available and can be freely used based on the community practises.