MISP data models - MISP core format - MISP taxonomies

MISP is not only a software but also a series of data models created by the MISP community. MISP includes a simple and practical information sharing format expressed in JSON that can be used with MISP software or by any other software. The MISP formats are now standards handled by the MISP standard body.

MISP Core Format

The MISP core format is a simple JSON format used by MISP and other tools to exchange events and attributes. The JSON schema 2.4 is described on the MISP core software and many sample files are available in the OSINT feed.

The MISP format is described as Internet-Draft in misp-rfc. The MISP format are described to support the developer or organisation willing to build your own tool supporting the MISP format (as import or export). The standard is built from practical use-cases and the implementation references within the MISP project. The standard is quickly evolving following the MISP implementation.

MISP default attributes and categories

Attribute Categories vs. Types

Category Internal reference Targeting data Antivirus detection Payload delivery Artifacts dropped Payload installation
md5 X X X
sha1 X X X
sha256 X X X
filename X X X
pdb X
filename|md5 X X X
filename|sha1 X X X
filename|sha256 X X X
ip-src X
ip-dst X
hostname X
domain X
domain|ip
email X
email-src X
eppn
email-dst X
email-subject X
email-attachment X
email-body X
float
git-commit-id X
url X
http-method
user-agent X
ja3-fingerprint-md5 X
jarm-fingerprint X
favicon-mmh3
hassh-md5 X
hasshserver-md5 X
regkey X
regkey|value X
AS X
snort
bro
zeek
community-id
pattern-in-file X X X
pattern-in-traffic X X
pattern-in-memory X X
filename-pattern X X X
pgp-public-key X
pgp-private-key X
ssh-fingerprint
yara X X X
stix2-pattern X X X
sigma X X X
gene X
kusto-query X
mime-type X X X
identity-card-number
cookie X
vulnerability X X
cpe X X
weakness X X
attachment X X X X
malware-sample X X X
link X X X
comment X X X X X X
text X X X X X
hex X X X X X
other X X X X X
named pipe X
mutex X
process-state X
target-user X
target-email X
target-machine X
target-org X
target-location X
target-external X
btc
dash
xmr
iban
bic
bank-account-nr
aba-rtn
bin
cc-number
prtn
phone-number
threat-actor
campaign-name
campaign-id
malware-type X X
uri
authentihash X X X
vhash X X X
ssdeep X X X
imphash X X X
telfhash X X X
pehash X X
impfuzzy X X X
sha224 X X X
sha384 X X X
sha512 X X X
sha512/224 X X X
sha512/256 X X X
sha3-224 X X X
sha3-256 X X X
sha3-384 X X X
sha3-512 X X X
tlsh X X
cdhash X X X
filename|authentihash X X X
filename|vhash X X X
filename|ssdeep X X X
filename|imphash X X X
filename|impfuzzy X X X
filename|pehash X X X
filename|sha224 X X X
filename|sha384 X X X
filename|sha512 X X X
filename|sha512/224 X X X
filename|sha512/256 X X X
filename|sha3-224 X X X
filename|sha3-256 X X X
filename|sha3-384 X X X
filename|sha3-512 X X X
filename|tlsh X X X
windows-scheduled-task X
windows-service-name X
windows-service-displayname X
whois-registrant-email X
whois-registrant-phone
whois-registrant-name
whois-registrant-org
whois-registrar
whois-creation-date
x509-fingerprint-sha1 X X X
x509-fingerprint-md5 X X X
x509-fingerprint-sha256 X X X
dns-soa-email
size-in-bytes
counter
datetime
port
ip-dst|port X
ip-src|port X
hostname|port X
mac-address X
mac-eui-64 X
email-dst-display-name X
email-src-display-name X
email-header X
email-reply-to X
email-x-mailer X
email-mime-boundary X
email-thread-index X
email-message-id X
github-username
github-repository
github-organisation
jabber-id
twitter-id
dkim
dkim-signature
first-name
middle-name
last-name
full-name
date-of-birth
place-of-birth
gender
passport-number
passport-country
passport-expiration
redress-number
nationality
visa-number
issue-date-of-the-visa
primary-residence
country-of-residence
special-service-request
frequent-flyer-number
travel-details
payment-details
place-port-of-original-embarkation
place-port-of-clearance
place-port-of-onward-foreign-destination
passenger-name-record-locator-number
mobile-application-id X X
azure-application-id X X
chrome-extension-id X X
cortex
boolean
anonymised X X X X X X
Category Persistence mechanism Network activity Payload type Attribution External analysis Financial fraud
md5 X
sha1 X
sha256 X
filename X X
pdb
filename|md5 X
filename|sha1 X
filename|sha256 X
ip-src X X
ip-dst X X
hostname X X
domain X X
domain|ip X X
email X X
email-src X
eppn X
email-dst X
email-subject X
email-attachment
email-body
float
git-commit-id
url X X
http-method X
user-agent X X
ja3-fingerprint-md5 X X
jarm-fingerprint X X
favicon-mmh3 X
hassh-md5 X X
hasshserver-md5 X X
regkey X X
regkey|value X X
AS X X
snort X X
bro X X
zeek X X
community-id X X
pattern-in-file X X
pattern-in-traffic X X
pattern-in-memory X
filename-pattern X X
pgp-public-key
pgp-private-key
ssh-fingerprint X
yara
stix2-pattern X
sigma
gene
kusto-query
mime-type
identity-card-number
cookie X
vulnerability X
cpe X
weakness X
attachment X X
malware-sample X
link X
comment X X X X X X
text X X X X X X
hex X X X
other X X X X X X
named pipe
mutex
process-state
target-user
target-email
target-machine
target-org
target-location
target-external
btc X
dash X
xmr X
iban X
bic X
bank-account-nr X
aba-rtn X
bin X
cc-number X
prtn X
phone-number X
threat-actor X
campaign-name X
campaign-id X
malware-type
uri X
authentihash
vhash
ssdeep
imphash
telfhash
pehash
impfuzzy
sha224
sha384
sha512
sha512/224
sha512/256
sha3-224 X
sha3-256 X
sha3-384 X
sha3-512 X
tlsh
cdhash
filename|authentihash
filename|vhash
filename|ssdeep
filename|imphash
filename|impfuzzy
filename|pehash
filename|sha224
filename|sha384
filename|sha512
filename|sha512/224
filename|sha512/256
filename|sha3-224 X
filename|sha3-256 X
filename|sha3-384 X
filename|sha3-512 X
filename|tlsh
windows-scheduled-task
windows-service-name
windows-service-displayname
whois-registrant-email X
whois-registrant-phone X
whois-registrant-name X
whois-registrant-org X
whois-registrar X
whois-creation-date X
x509-fingerprint-sha1 X X X
x509-fingerprint-md5 X X X
x509-fingerprint-sha256 X X X
dns-soa-email X
size-in-bytes
counter
datetime
port X
ip-dst|port X X
ip-src|port X X
hostname|port X
mac-address X X
mac-eui-64 X X
email-dst-display-name
email-src-display-name
email-header
email-reply-to
email-x-mailer
email-mime-boundary
email-thread-index
email-message-id
github-username
github-repository X
github-organisation
jabber-id
twitter-id
dkim X
dkim-signature X
first-name
middle-name
last-name
full-name
date-of-birth
place-of-birth
gender
passport-number
passport-country
passport-expiration
redress-number
nationality
visa-number
issue-date-of-the-visa
primary-residence
country-of-residence
special-service-request
frequent-flyer-number
travel-details
payment-details
place-port-of-original-embarkation
place-port-of-clearance
place-port-of-onward-foreign-destination
passenger-name-record-locator-number
mobile-application-id
azure-application-id
chrome-extension-id
cortex X
boolean
anonymised X X X X X X
Category Support Tool Social network Person Other
md5
sha1
sha256
filename
pdb
filename|md5
filename|sha1
filename|sha256
ip-src
ip-dst
hostname
domain
domain|ip
email X X
email-src X
eppn X
email-dst X
email-subject
email-attachment
email-body
float X
git-commit-id
url
http-method
user-agent
ja3-fingerprint-md5
jarm-fingerprint
favicon-mmh3
hassh-md5
hasshserver-md5
regkey
regkey|value
AS
snort
bro
zeek
community-id
pattern-in-file
pattern-in-traffic
pattern-in-memory
filename-pattern
pgp-public-key X X X
pgp-private-key X X X
ssh-fingerprint
yara
stix2-pattern
sigma
gene
kusto-query
mime-type
identity-card-number X
cookie
vulnerability
cpe X
weakness
attachment X
malware-sample
link X
comment X X X X
text X X X X
hex X X
other X X X X
named pipe
mutex
process-state
target-user
target-email
target-machine
target-org
target-location
target-external
btc
dash
xmr
iban
bic
bank-account-nr
aba-rtn
bin
cc-number
prtn
phone-number X X
threat-actor
campaign-name
campaign-id
malware-type
uri
authentihash
vhash
ssdeep
imphash
telfhash
pehash
impfuzzy
sha224
sha384
sha512
sha512/224
sha512/256
sha3-224
sha3-256
sha3-384
sha3-512
tlsh
cdhash
filename|authentihash
filename|vhash
filename|ssdeep
filename|imphash
filename|impfuzzy
filename|pehash
filename|sha224
filename|sha384
filename|sha512
filename|sha512/224
filename|sha512/256
filename|sha3-224
filename|sha3-256
filename|sha3-384
filename|sha3-512
filename|tlsh
windows-scheduled-task
windows-service-name
windows-service-displayname
whois-registrant-email X
whois-registrant-phone
whois-registrant-name
whois-registrant-org
whois-registrar
whois-creation-date
x509-fingerprint-sha1
x509-fingerprint-md5
x509-fingerprint-sha256
dns-soa-email
size-in-bytes X
counter X
datetime X
port X
ip-dst|port
ip-src|port
hostname|port
mac-address
mac-eui-64
email-dst-display-name
email-src-display-name
email-header
email-reply-to
email-x-mailer
email-mime-boundary
email-thread-index
email-message-id
github-username X
github-repository X
github-organisation X
jabber-id X
twitter-id X
dkim
dkim-signature
first-name X
middle-name X
last-name X
full-name X
date-of-birth X
place-of-birth X
gender X
passport-number X
passport-country X
passport-expiration X
redress-number X
nationality X
visa-number X
issue-date-of-the-visa X
primary-residence X
country-of-residence X
special-service-request X
frequent-flyer-number X
travel-details X
payment-details X
place-port-of-original-embarkation X
place-port-of-clearance X
place-port-of-onward-foreign-destination X
passenger-name-record-locator-number X
mobile-application-id
azure-application-id
chrome-extension-id
cortex
boolean X
anonymised X X X X

Categories

*   Internal reference: Reference used by the publishing party (e.g. ticket number) *   Targeting data: Targeting information to include recipient email, infected machines, department, and or locations. *   Antivirus detection: List of anti-virus vendors detecting the malware or information on detection performance (e.g. 13/43 or 67%). Attachment with list of detection or link to VirusTotal could be placed here as well. *   Payload delivery: Information about the way the malware payload is initially delivered, for example information about the email or web-site, vulnerability used, originating IP etc. Malware sample itself should be attached here. *   Artifacts dropped: Any artifact (files, registry keys etc.) dropped by the malware or other modifications to the system *   Payload installation: Location where the payload was placed in the system and the way it was installed. For example, a filename|md5 type attribute can be added here like this: c:\windows\system32\malicious.exe|41d8cd98f00b204e9800998ecf8427e. *   Persistence mechanism: Mechanisms used by the malware to start at boot. This could be a registry key, legitimate driver modification, LNK file in startup *   Network activity: Information about network traffic generated by the malware *   Payload type: Information about the final payload(s). Can contain a function of the payload, e.g. keylogger, RAT, or a name if identified, such as Poison Ivy. *   Attribution: Identification of the group, organisation, or country behind the attack *   External analysis: Any other result from additional analysis of the malware like tools output Examples: pdf-parser output, automated sandbox analysis, reverse engineering report. *   Financial fraud: Financial Fraud indicators, for example: IBAN Numbers, BIC codes, Credit card numbers, etc. *   Support Tool: Tools supporting analysis or detection of the event *   Social network: Social networks and platforms *   Person: A human being - natural person *   Other: Attributes that are not part of any other category or are meant to be used as a component in MISP objects in the future

Types

*   md5: You are encouraged to use filename|md5 instead. A checksum in md5 format, only use this if you don’t know the correct filename *   sha1: You are encouraged to use filename|sha1 instead. A checksum in sha1 format, only use this if you don’t know the correct filename *   sha256: You are encouraged to use filename|sha256 instead. A checksum in sha256 format, only use this if you don’t know the correct filename *   filename: Filename *   pdb: Microsoft Program database (PDB) path information *   filename|md5: A filename and an md5 hash separated by a | (no spaces) *   filename|sha1: A filename and an sha1 hash separated by a | (no spaces) *   filename|sha256: A filename and an sha256 hash separated by a | (no spaces) *   ip-src: A source IP address of the attacker *   ip-dst: A destination IP address of the attacker or C&C server. Also set the IDS flag on when this IP is hardcoded in malware *   hostname: A full host/dnsname of an attacker. Also set the IDS flag on when this hostname is hardcoded in malware *   domain: A domain name used in the malware. Use this instead of hostname when the upper domain is important or can be used to create links between events. *   domain|ip: A domain name and its IP address (as found in DNS lookup) separated by a | (no spaces) *   email: An e-mail address *   email-src: The source email address. Used to describe the sender when describing an e-mail. *   eppn: eduPersonPrincipalName - eppn - the NetId of the person for the purposes of inter-institutional authentication. Should be stored in the form of user@univ.edu, where univ.edu is the name of the local security domain. *   email-dst: The destination email address. Used to describe the recipient when describing an e-mail. *   email-subject: The subject of the email *   email-attachment: File name of the email attachment. *   email-body: Email body *   float: A floating point value. *   git-commit-id: A git commit ID. *   url: url *   http-method: HTTP method used by the malware (e.g. POST, GET, …). *   user-agent: The user-agent used by the malware in the HTTP request. *   ja3-fingerprint-md5: JA3 is a method for creating SSL/TLS client fingerprints that should be easy to produce on any platform and can be easily shared for threat intelligence. *   jarm-fingerprint: JARM is a method for creating SSL/TLS server fingerprints. *   favicon-mmh3: favicon-mmh3 is the murmur3 hash of a favicon as used in Shodan. *   hassh-md5: hassh is a network fingerprinting standard which can be used to identify specific Client SSH implementations. The fingerprints can be easily stored, searched and shared in the form of an MD5 fingerprint. *   hasshserver-md5: hasshServer is a network fingerprinting standard which can be used to identify specific Server SSH implementations. The fingerprints can be easily stored, searched and shared in the form of an MD5 fingerprint. *   regkey: Registry key or value *   regkey|value: Registry value + data separated by | *   AS: Autonomous system *   snort: An IDS rule in Snort rule-format. This rule will be automatically rewritten in the NIDS exports. *   bro: An NIDS rule in the Bro rule-format. *   zeek: An NIDS rule in the Zeek rule-format. *   community-id: a community ID flow hashing algorithm to map multiple traffic monitors into common flow id *   pattern-in-file: Pattern in file that identifies the malware *   pattern-in-traffic: Pattern in network traffic that identifies the malware *   pattern-in-memory: Pattern in memory dump that identifies the malware *   filename-pattern: A pattern in the name of a file *   pgp-public-key: A PGP public key *   pgp-private-key: A PGP private key *   ssh-fingerprint: A fingerprint of SSH key material *   yara: Yara signature *   stix2-pattern: STIX 2 pattern *   sigma: Sigma - Generic Signature Format for SIEM Systems *   gene: GENE - Go Evtx sigNature Engine *   kusto-query: Kusto query - Kusto from Microsoft Azure is a service for storing and running interactive analytics over Big Data. *   mime-type: A media type (also MIME type and content type) is a two-part identifier for file formats and format contents transmitted on the Internet *   identity-card-number: Identity card number *   cookie: HTTP cookie as often stored on the user web client. This can include authentication cookie or session cookie. *   vulnerability: A reference to the vulnerability used in the exploit *   cpe: Common Platform Enumeration - structured naming scheme for information technology systems, software, and packages. *   weakness: A reference to the weakness used in the exploit *   attachment: Please upload files using the Upload Attachment button. *   malware-sample: Please upload files using the Upload Attachment button. *   link: Link to an external information *   comment: Comment or description in a human language. This will not be correlated with other attributes *   text: Name, ID or a reference *   hex: A value in hexadecimal format *   other: Other attribute *   named pipe: Named pipe, use the format .\pipe<PipeName> *   mutex: Mutex, use the format \BaseNamedObjects<Mutex> *   process-state: State of a process *   target-user: Attack Targets Username(s) *   target-email: Attack Targets Email(s) *   target-machine: Attack Targets Machine Name(s) *   target-org: Attack Targets Department or Organization(s) *   target-location: Attack Targets Physical Location(s) *   target-external: External Target Organizations Affected by this Attack *   btc: Bitcoin Address *   dash: Dash Address *   xmr: Monero Address *   iban: International Bank Account Number *   bic: Bank Identifier Code Number also known as SWIFT-BIC, SWIFT code or ISO 9362 code *   bank-account-nr: Bank account number without any routing number *   aba-rtn: ABA routing transit number *   bin: Bank Identification Number *   cc-number: Credit-Card Number *   prtn: Premium-Rate Telephone Number *   phone-number: Telephone Number *   threat-actor: A string identifying the threat actor *   campaign-name: Associated campaign name *   campaign-id: Associated campaign ID *   malware-type: *   uri: Uniform Resource Identifier *   authentihash: You are encouraged to use filename|authentihash instead. Authenticode executable signature hash, only use this if you don’t know the correct filename *   vhash: You are encouraged to use filename|vhash instead. A checksum from VirusTotal, only use this if you don’t know the correct filename *   ssdeep: You are encouraged to use filename|ssdeep instead. A checksum in the SSDeep format, only use this if you don’t know the correct filename *   imphash: You are encouraged to use filename|imphash instead. A hash created based on the imports in the sample, only use this if you don’t know the correct filename *   telfhash: You are encouraged to use a file object with telfash *   pehash: PEhash - a hash calculated based of certain pieces of a PE executable file *   impfuzzy: You are encouraged to use filename|impfuzzy instead. A fuzzy hash created based on the imports in the sample, only use this if you don’t know the correct filename *   sha224: You are encouraged to use filename|sha224 instead. A checksum in sha224 format, only use this if you don’t know the correct filename *   sha384: You are encouraged to use filename|sha384 instead. A checksum in sha384 format, only use this if you don’t know the correct filename *   sha512: You are encouraged to use filename|sha512 instead. A checksum in sha512 format, only use this if you don’t know the correct filename *   sha512/224: You are encouraged to use filename|sha512/224 instead. A checksum in sha512/224 format, only use this if you don’t know the correct filename *   sha512/256: You are encouraged to use filename|sha512/256 instead. A checksum in sha512/256 format, only use this if you don’t know the correct filename *   sha3-224: You are encouraged to use filename|sha3-224 instead. A checksum in sha3-224 format, only use this if you don’t know the correct filename *   sha3-256: You are encouraged to use filename|sha3-256 instead. A checksum in sha3-256 format, only use this if you don’t know the correct filename *   sha3-384: You are encouraged to use filename|sha3-384 instead. A checksum in sha3-384 format, only use this if you don’t know the correct filename *   sha3-512: You are encouraged to use filename|sha3-512 instead. A checksum in sha3-512 format, only use this if you don’t know the correct filename *   tlsh: You are encouraged to use filename|tlsh instead. A checksum in the Trend Micro Locality Sensitive Hash format, only use this if you don’t know the correct filename *   cdhash: An Apple Code Directory Hash, identifying a code-signed Mach-O executable file *   filename|authentihash: A checksum in md5 format *   filename|vhash: A filename and a VirusTotal hash separated by a | *   filename|ssdeep: A checksum in ssdeep format *   filename|imphash: Import hash - a hash created based on the imports in the sample. *   filename|impfuzzy: Import fuzzy hash - a fuzzy hash created based on the imports in the sample. *   filename|pehash: A filename and a PEhash separated by a | *   filename|sha224: A filename and a sha-224 hash separated by a | *   filename|sha384: A filename and a sha-384 hash separated by a | *   filename|sha512: A filename and a sha-512 hash separated by a | *   filename|sha512/224: A filename and a sha-512/224 hash separated by a | *   filename|sha512/256: A filename and a sha-512/256 hash separated by a | *   filename|sha3-224: A filename and an sha3-224 hash separated by a | *   filename|sha3-256: A filename and an sha3-256 hash separated by a | *   filename|sha3-384: A filename and an sha3-384 hash separated by a | *   filename|sha3-512: A filename and an sha3-512 hash separated by a | *   filename|tlsh: A filename and a Trend Micro Locality Sensitive Hash separated by a | *   windows-scheduled-task: A scheduled task in windows *   windows-service-name: A windows service name. This is the name used internally by windows. Not to be confused with the windows-service-displayname. *   windows-service-displayname: A windows service’s displayname, not to be confused with the windows-service-name. This is the name that applications will generally display as the service’s name in applications. *   whois-registrant-email: The e-mail of a domain’s registrant, obtained from the WHOIS information. *   whois-registrant-phone: The phone number of a domain’s registrant, obtained from the WHOIS information. *   whois-registrant-name: The name of a domain’s registrant, obtained from the WHOIS information. *   whois-registrant-org: The org of a domain’s registrant, obtained from the WHOIS information. *   whois-registrar: The registrar of the domain, obtained from the WHOIS information. *   whois-creation-date: The date of domain’s creation, obtained from the WHOIS information. *   x509-fingerprint-sha1: X509 fingerprint in SHA-1 format *   x509-fingerprint-md5: X509 fingerprint in MD5 format *   x509-fingerprint-sha256: X509 fingerprint in SHA-256 format *   dns-soa-email: RFC1035 mandates that DNS zones should have a SOA (Statement Of Authority) record that contains an email address where a PoC for the domain could be contacted. This can sometimes be used for attribution/linkage between different domains even if protected by whois privacy *   size-in-bytes: Size expressed in bytes *   counter: An integer counter, generally to be used in objects *   datetime: Datetime in the ISO 8601 format *   port: Port number *   ip-dst|port: IP destination and port number separated by a | *   ip-src|port: IP source and port number separated by a | *   hostname|port: Hostname and port number separated by a | *   mac-address: Mac address *   mac-eui-64: Mac EUI-64 address *   email-dst-display-name: Email destination display name *   email-src-display-name: Email source display name *   email-header: Email header *   email-reply-to: Email reply to header *   email-x-mailer: Email x-mailer header *   email-mime-boundary: The email mime boundary separating parts in a multipart email *   email-thread-index: The email thread index header *   email-message-id: The email message ID *   github-username: A github user name *   github-repository: A github repository *   github-organisation: A github organisation *   jabber-id: Jabber ID *   twitter-id: Twitter ID *   dkim: DKIM public key *   dkim-signature: DKIM signature *   first-name: First name of a natural person *   middle-name: Middle name of a natural person *   last-name: Last name of a natural person *   full-name: Full name of a natural person *   date-of-birth: Date of birth of a natural person (in YYYY-MM-DD format) *   place-of-birth: Place of birth of a natural person *   gender: The gender of a natural person (Male, Female, Other, Prefer not to say) *   passport-number: The passport number of a natural person *   passport-country: The country in which the passport was issued *   passport-expiration: The expiration date of a passport *   redress-number: The Redress Control Number is the record identifier for people who apply for redress through the DHS Travel Redress Inquiry Program (DHS TRIP). DHS TRIP is for travelers who have been repeatedly identified for additional screening and who want to file an inquiry to have erroneous information corrected in DHS systems *   nationality: The nationality of a natural person *   visa-number: Visa number *   issue-date-of-the-visa: The date on which the visa was issued *   primary-residence: The primary residence of a natural person *   country-of-residence: The country of residence of a natural person *   special-service-request: A Special Service Request is a function to an airline to provide a particular facility for A Passenger or passengers. *   frequent-flyer-number: The frequent flyer number of a passenger *   travel-details: Travel details *   payment-details: Payment details *   place-port-of-original-embarkation: The original port of embarkation *   place-port-of-clearance: The port of clearance *   place-port-of-onward-foreign-destination: A Port where the passenger is transiting to *   passenger-name-record-locator-number: The Passenger Name Record Locator is a key under which the reservation for a trip is stored in the system. The PNR contains, among other data, the name, flight segments and address of the passenger. It is defined by a combination of five or six letters and numbers. *   mobile-application-id: The application id of a mobile application *   azure-application-id: Azure Application ID. *   chrome-extension-id: Chrome extension id *   cortex: Cortex analysis result *   boolean: Boolean value - to be used in objects *   anonymised: Anonymised value - described with the anonymisation object via a relationship.

MISP objects

MISP objects are in addition to MISP attributes to allow advanced combinations of attributes. The creation of these objects and their associated attributes are based on real cyber security use-cases and existing practices in information sharing. MISP objects are standardised under a simple templating format and are automatically available in MISP. A series of relationships are also defined along with the objects which can be used to create relationships between objects.

The objects available can be browsed via the web site or downloaded as PDF or directly via the MISP software.

MISP Taxonomies

Along with the core format, MISP taxonomies provide a set of already defined classifications modeling estimative language, CSIRTs/CERTs classifications, national classifications or threat model classification. The fixed taxonomies provide a practical method to tag efficiently events and attributes within a set of MISP instances where taxonomies can be easily cherry-picked or extended to meet the local requirements of an organization or a specific sharing community. When using MISP, the MISP taxonomies are available and can be freely used based on the community practises.

The taxonomies can be browsed via the web site or downloaded as PDF or via the MISP software.

CERT-XLM

CERT-XLM : CERT-XLM Security Incident Classification. Overview

DFRLab-dichotomies-of-disinformation

DFRLab-dichotomies-of-disinformation : DFRLab Dichotomies of Disinformation. Overview

DML

DML : The Detection Maturity Level (DML) model is a capability maturity model for referencing ones maturity in detecting cyber attacks. It’s designed for organizations who perform intel-driven detection and response and who put an emphasis on having a mature detection program. Overview

PAP

PAP : The Permissible Actions Protocol - or short: PAP - was designed to indicate how the received information can be used. Overview

access-method

access-method : The access method used to remotely access a system. Overview

accessnow

accessnow : Access Now classification to classify an issue (such as security, human rights, youth rights). Overview

action-taken

action-taken : Action taken in the case of a security incident (CSIRT perspective). Overview

admiralty-scale

admiralty-scale : The Admiralty Scale or Ranking (also called the NATO System) is used to rank the reliability of a source and the credibility of an information. Reference based on FM 2-22.3 (FM 34-52) HUMAN INTELLIGENCE COLLECTOR OPERATIONS and NATO documents. Overview

adversary

adversary : An overview and description of the adversary infrastructure Overview

ais-marking

ais-marking : The AIS Marking Schema implementation is maintained by the National Cybersecurity and Communication Integration Center (NCCIC) of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Overview

analyst-assessment

analyst-assessment : A series of assessment predicates describing the analyst capabilities to perform analysis. These assessment can be assigned by the analyst him/herself or by another party evaluating the analyst. Overview

approved-category-of-action

approved-category-of-action : A pre-approved category of action for indicators being shared with partners (MIMIC). Overview

binary-class

binary-class : Custom taxonomy for types of binary file. Overview

cccs

cccs : Internal taxonomy for CCCS. Overview

circl

circl : CIRCL Taxonomy - Schemes of Classification in Incident Response and Detection Overview

coa

coa : Course of action taken within organization to discover, detect, deny, disrupt, degrade, deceive and/or destroy an attack. Overview

collaborative-intelligence

collaborative-intelligence : Collaborative intelligence support language is a common language to support analysts to perform their analysis to get crowdsourced support when using threat intelligence sharing platform like MISP. The objective of this language is to advance collaborative analysis and to share earlier than later. Overview

common-taxonomy

common-taxonomy : Common Taxonomy for Law enforcement and CSIRTs Overview

copine-scale

copine-scale : The COPINE Scale is a rating system created in Ireland and used in the United Kingdom to categorise the severity of images of child sex abuse. The scale was developed by staff at the COPINE (Combating Paedophile Information Networks in Europe) project. The COPINE Project was founded in 1997, and is based in the Department of Applied Psychology, University College Cork, Ireland. Overview

course-of-action

course-of-action : A Course Of Action analysis considers six potential courses of action for the development of a cyber security capability. Overview

cryptocurrency-threat

cryptocurrency-threat : Threats targetting cryptocurrency, based on CipherTrace report. Overview

csirt-americas

csirt-americas : Taxonomía CSIRT Américas. Overview

csirt_case_classification

csirt_case_classification : It is critical that the CSIRT provide consistent and timely response to the customer, and that sensitive information is handled appropriately. This document provides the guidelines needed for CSIRT Incident Managers (IM) to classify the case category, criticality level, and sensitivity level for each CSIRT case. This information will be entered into the Incident Tracking System (ITS) when a case is created. Consistent case classification is required for the CSIRT to provide accurate reporting to management on a regular basis. In addition, the classifications will provide CSIRT IM’s with proper case handling procedures and will form the basis of SLA’s between the CSIRT and other Company departments. Overview

cssa

cssa : The CSSA agreed sharing taxonomy. Overview

cti

cti : Cyber Threat Intelligence cycle to control workflow state of your process. Overview

current-event

current-event : Current events - Schemes of Classification in Incident Response and Detection Overview

cyber-threat-framework

cyber-threat-framework : Cyber Threat Framework was developed by the US Government to enable consistent characterization and categorization of cyber threat events, and to identify trends or changes in the activities of cyber adversaries. https://www.dni.gov/index.php/cyber-threat-framework Overview

cycat

cycat : Taxonomy used by CyCAT, the Universal Cybersecurity Resource Catalogue, to categorize the namespaces it supports and uses. Overview

cytomic-orion

cytomic-orion : Taxonomy to describe desired actions for Cytomic Orion Overview

dark-web

dark-web : Criminal motivation on the dark web: A categorisation model for law enforcement. ref: Janis Dalins, Campbell Wilson, Mark Carman. Taxonomy updated by MISP Project Overview

data-classification

data-classification : Data classification for data potentially at risk of exfiltration based on table 2.1 of Solving Cyber Risk book. Overview

dcso-sharing

dcso-sharing : Taxonomy defined in the DCSO MISP Event Guide. It provides guidance for the creation and consumption of MISP events in a way that minimises the extra effort for the sending party, while enhancing the usefulness for receiving parties. Overview

ddos

ddos : Distributed Denial of Service - or short: DDoS - taxonomy supports the description of Denial of Service attacks and especially the types they belong too. Overview

de-vs

de-vs : German (DE) Government classification markings (VS). Overview

deception

deception : Deception is an important component of information operations, valuable for both offense and defense. Overview

dhs-ciip-sectors

dhs-ciip-sectors : DHS critical sectors as in https://www.dhs.gov/critical-infrastructure-sectors Overview

diamond-model

diamond-model : The Diamond Model for Intrusion Analysis establishes the basic atomic element of any intrusion activity, the event, composed of four core features: adversary, infrastructure, capability, and victim. Overview

dni-ism

dni-ism : A subset of Information Security Marking Metadata ISM as required by Executive Order (EO) 13526. As described by DNI.gov as Data Encoding Specifications for Information Security Marking Metadata in Controlled Vocabulary Enumeration Values for ISM Overview

domain-abuse

domain-abuse : Domain Name Abuse - taxonomy to tag domain names used for cybercrime. Overview

drugs

drugs : A taxonomy based on the superclass and class of drugs. Based on https://www.drugbank.ca/releases/latest Overview

economical-impact

economical-impact : Economical impact is a taxonomy to describe the financial impact as positive or negative gain to the tagged information (e.g. data exfiltration loss, a positive gain for an adversary). Overview

ecsirt

ecsirt : Incident Classification by the ecsirt.net version mkVI of 31 March 2015 enriched with IntelMQ taxonomy-type mapping. Overview

enisa

enisa : The present threat taxonomy is an initial version that has been developed on the basis of available ENISA material. This material has been used as an ENISA-internal structuring aid for information collection and threat consolidation purposes. It emerged in the time period 2012-2015. Overview

estimative-language

estimative-language : Estimative language to describe quality and credibility of underlying sources, data, and methodologies based Intelligence Community Directive 203 (ICD 203) and JP 2-0, Joint Intelligence Overview

eu-marketop-and-publicadmin

eu-marketop-and-publicadmin : Market operators and public administrations that must comply to some notifications requirements under EU NIS directive Overview

eu-nis-sector-and-subsectors

eu-nis-sector-and-subsectors : Sectors, subsectors, and digital services as identified by the NIS Directive Overview

euci

euci : EU classified information (EUCI) means any information or material designated by a EU security classification, the unauthorised disclosure of which could cause varying degrees of prejudice to the interests of the European Union or of one or more of the Member States. Overview

europol-event

europol-event : This taxonomy was designed to describe the type of events Overview

europol-incident

europol-incident : This taxonomy was designed to describe the type of incidents by class. Overview

event-assessment

event-assessment : A series of assessment predicates describing the event assessment performed to make judgement(s) under a certain level of uncertainty. Overview

event-classification

event-classification : Classification of events as seen in tools such as RT/IR, MISP and other Overview

exercise

exercise : Exercise is a taxonomy to describe if the information is part of one or more cyber or crisis exercise. Overview

extended-event

extended-event : Reasons why an event has been extended. Overview

failure-mode-in-machine-learning

failure-mode-in-machine-learning : The purpose of this taxonomy is to jointly tabulate both the of these failure modes in a single place. Intentional failures wherein the failure is caused by an active adversary attempting to subvert the system to attain her goals – either to misclassify the result, infer private training data, or to steal the underlying algorithm. Unintentional failures wherein the failure is because an ML system produces a formally correct but completely unsafe outcome. Overview

false-positive

false-positive : This taxonomy aims to ballpark the expected amount of false positives. Overview

file-type

file-type : List of known file types. Overview

flesch-reading-ease

flesch-reading-ease : Flesch Reading Ease is a revised system for determining the comprehension difficulty of written material. The scoring of the flesh score can have a maximum of 121.22 and there is no limit on how low a score can be (negative score are valid). Overview

fpf

fpf : The Future of Privacy Forum (FPF) visual guide to practical de-identification taxonomy is used to evaluate the degree of identifiability of personal data and the types of pseudonymous data, de-identified data and anonymous data. The work of FPF is licensed under a creative commons attribution 4.0 international license. Overview

fr-classif

fr-classif : French gov information classification system Overview

gdpr

gdpr : Taxonomy related to the REGULATION (EU) 2016/679 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data, and repealing Directive 95/46/EC (General Data Protection Regulation) Overview

gea-nz-activities

gea-nz-activities : Information needed to track or monitor moments, periods or events that occur over time. This type of information is focused on occurrences that must be tracked for business reasons or represent a specific point in the evolution of ‘The Business’. Overview

gea-nz-entities

gea-nz-entities : Information relating to instances of entities or things. Overview

gea-nz-motivators

gea-nz-motivators : Information relating to authority or governance. Overview

gsma-attack-category

gsma-attack-category : Taxonomy used by GSMA for their information sharing program with telco describing the attack categories Overview

gsma-fraud

gsma-fraud : Taxonomy used by GSMA for their information sharing program with telco describing the various aspects of fraud Overview

gsma-network-technology

gsma-network-technology : Taxonomy used by GSMA for their information sharing program with telco describing the types of infrastructure. WiP Overview

honeypot-basic

honeypot-basic : Updated (CIRCL, Seamus Dowling and EURECOM) from Christian Seifert, Ian Welch, Peter Komisarczuk, ‘Taxonomy of Honeypots’, Technical Report CS-TR-06/12, VICTORIA UNIVERSITY OF WELLINGTON, School of Mathematical and Computing Sciences, June 2006, http://www.mcs.vuw.ac.nz/comp/Publications/archive/CS-TR-06/CS-TR-06-12.pdf Overview

ics

ics : FIRST.ORG CTI SIG - MISP Proposal for ICS/OT Threat Attribution (IOC) Project Overview

iep

iep : Forum of Incident Response and Security Teams (FIRST) Information Exchange Policy (IEP) framework Overview

iep2-policy

iep2-policy : Forum of Incident Response and Security Teams (FIRST) Information Exchange Policy (IEP) v2.0 Policy Overview

iep2-reference

iep2-reference : Forum of Incident Response and Security Teams (FIRST) Information Exchange Policy (IEP) v2.0 Reference Overview

ifx-vetting

ifx-vetting : The IFX taxonomy is used to categorise information (MISP events and attributes) to aid in the intelligence vetting process Overview

incident-disposition

incident-disposition : How an incident is classified in its process to be resolved. The taxonomy is inspired from NASA Incident Response and Management Handbook. https://www.nasa.gov/pdf/589502main_ITS-HBK-2810.09-02%20%5bNASA%20Information%20Security%20Incident%20Management%5d.pdf#page=9 Overview

infoleak

infoleak : A taxonomy describing information leaks and especially information classified as being potentially leaked. The taxonomy is based on the work by CIRCL on the AIL framework. The taxonomy aim is to be used at large to improve classification of leaked information. Overview

information-security-data-source

information-security-data-source : Taxonomy to classify the information security data sources. Overview

information-security-indicators

information-security-indicators : A full set of operational indicators for organizations to use to benchmark their security posture. Overview

interactive-cyber-training-audience

interactive-cyber-training-audience : Describes the target of cyber training and education. Overview

interactive-cyber-training-technical-setup

interactive-cyber-training-technical-setup : The technical setup consists of environment structure, deployment, and orchestration. Overview

interactive-cyber-training-training-environment

interactive-cyber-training-training-environment : The training environment details the environment around the training, consisting of training type and scenario. Overview

interactive-cyber-training-training-setup

interactive-cyber-training-training-setup : The training setup further describes the training itself with the scoring, roles, the training mode as well as the customization level. Overview

interception-method

interception-method : The interception method used to intercept traffic. Overview

ioc

ioc : An IOC classification to facilitate automation of malicious and non malicious artifacts Overview

iot

iot : Internet of Things taxonomy, based on IOT UK report https://iotuk.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/IOT-Taxonomy-Report.pdf Overview

kill-chain

kill-chain : The Cyber Kill Chain, a phase-based model developed by Lockheed Martin, aims to help categorise and identify the stage of an attack. Overview

maec-delivery-vectors

maec-delivery-vectors : Vectors used to deliver malware based on MAEC 5.0 Overview

maec-malware-behavior

maec-malware-behavior : Malware behaviours based on MAEC 5.0 Overview

maec-malware-capabilities

maec-malware-capabilities : Malware Capabilities based on MAEC 5.0 Overview

maec-malware-obfuscation-methods

maec-malware-obfuscation-methods : Obfuscation methods used by malware based on MAEC 5.0 Overview

malware_classification

malware_classification : Classification based on different categories. Based on https://www.sans.org/reading-room/whitepapers/incident/malware-101-viruses-32848 Overview

misinformation-website-label

misinformation-website-label : classification for the identification of type of misinformation among websites. Source:False, Misleading, Clickbait-y, and/or Satirical News Sources by Melissa Zimdars 2019 Overview

misp

misp : MISP taxonomy to infer with MISP behavior or operation. Overview

monarc-threat

monarc-threat : MONARC Threats Taxonomy Overview

ms-caro-malware

ms-caro-malware : Malware Type and Platform classification based on Microsoft’s implementation of the Computer Antivirus Research Organization (CARO) Naming Scheme and Malware Terminology. Based on https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/security/portal/mmpc/shared/malwarenaming.aspx, https://www.microsoft.com/security/portal/mmpc/shared/glossary.aspx, https://www.microsoft.com/security/portal/mmpc/shared/objectivecriteria.aspx, and http://www.caro.org/definitions/index.html. Malware families are extracted from Microsoft SIRs since 2008 based on https://www.microsoft.com/security/sir/archive/default.aspx and https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/security/portal/threat/threats.aspx. Note that SIRs do NOT include all Microsoft malware families. Overview

ms-caro-malware-full

ms-caro-malware-full : Malware Type and Platform classification based on Microsoft’s implementation of the Computer Antivirus Research Organization (CARO) Naming Scheme and Malware Terminology. Based on https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/security/portal/mmpc/shared/malwarenaming.aspx, https://www.microsoft.com/security/portal/mmpc/shared/glossary.aspx, https://www.microsoft.com/security/portal/mmpc/shared/objectivecriteria.aspx, and http://www.caro.org/definitions/index.html. Malware families are extracted from Microsoft SIRs since 2008 based on https://www.microsoft.com/security/sir/archive/default.aspx and https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/security/portal/threat/threats.aspx. Note that SIRs do NOT include all Microsoft malware families. Overview

mwdb

mwdb : Malware Database (mwdb) Taxonomy - Tags used across the platform Overview

nato

nato : NATO classification markings. Overview

nis

nis : The taxonomy is meant for large scale cybersecurity incidents, as mentioned in the Commission Recommendation of 13 September 2017, also known as the blueprint. It has two core parts: The nature of the incident, i.e. the underlying cause, that triggered the incident, and the impact of the incident, i.e. the impact on services, in which sector(s) of economy and society. Overview

open_threat

open_threat : Open Threat Taxonomy v1.1 base on James Tarala of SANS http://www.auditscripts.com/resources/open_threat_taxonomy_v1.1a.pdf, https://files.sans.org/summit/Threat_Hunting_Incident_Response_Summit_2016/PDFs/Using-Open-Tools-to-Convert-Threat-Intelligence-into-Practical-Defenses-James-Tarala-SANS-Institute.pdf, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5rdGOOFC_yE, and https://www.rsaconference.com/writable/presentations/file_upload/str-r04_using-an-open-source-threat-model-for-prioritized-defense-final.pdf Overview

osint

osint : Open Source Intelligence - Classification (MISP taxonomies) Overview

pandemic

pandemic : Pandemic Overview

passivetotal

passivetotal : Tags from RiskIQ’s PassiveTotal service Overview

pentest

pentest : Penetration test (pentest) classification. Overview

phishing

phishing : Taxonomy to classify phishing attacks including techniques, collection mechanisms and analysis status. Overview

political-spectrum

political-spectrum : political spectrum is a system to characterize and classify different political positions Overview

priority-level

priority-level : After an incident is scored, it is assigned a priority level. The six levels listed below are aligned with NCCIC, DHS, and the CISS to help provide a common lexicon when discussing incidents. This priority assignment drives NCCIC urgency, pre-approved incident response offerings, reporting requirements, and recommendations for leadership escalation. Generally, incident priority distribution should follow a similar pattern to the graph below. Based on https://www.us-cert.gov/NCCIC-Cyber-Incident-Scoring-System. Overview

ransomware

ransomware : Ransomware is used to define ransomware types and the elements that compose them. Overview

retention

retention : Add a retenion time to events to automatically remove the IDS-flag on ip-dst or ip-src attributes. We calculate the time elapsed based on the date of the event. Supported time units are: d(ays), w(eeks), m(onths), y(ears). The numerical_value is just for sorting in the web-interface and is not used for calculations. Overview

rsit

rsit : Reference Security Incident Classification Taxonomy Overview

rt_event_status

rt_event_status : Status of events used in Request Tracker. Overview

runtime-packer

runtime-packer : Runtime or software packer used to combine compressed data with the decompression code. The decompression code can add additional obfuscations mechanisms including polymorphic-packer or other obfuscation techniques. This taxonomy lists all the known or official packer used for legitimate use or for packing malicious binaries. Overview

scrippsco2-fgc

scrippsco2-fgc : Flags describing the sample Overview

scrippsco2-fgi

scrippsco2-fgi : Flags describing the sample for isotopic data (C14, O18) Overview

scrippsco2-sampling-stations

scrippsco2-sampling-stations : Sampling stations of the Scripps CO2 Program Overview

smart-airports-threats

smart-airports-threats : Threat taxonomy in the scope of securing smart airports by ENISA. https://www.enisa.europa.eu/publications/securing-smart-airports Overview

stealth_malware

stealth_malware : Classification based on malware stealth techniques. Described in https://vxheaven.org/lib/pdf/Introducing%20Stealth%20Malware%20Taxonomy.pdf Overview

stix-ttp

stix-ttp : TTPs are representations of the behavior or modus operandi of cyber adversaries. Overview

targeted-threat-index

targeted-threat-index : The Targeted Threat Index is a metric for assigning an overall threat ranking score to email messages that deliver malware to a victim’s computer. The TTI metric was first introduced at SecTor 2013 by Seth Hardy as part of the talk “RATastrophe: Monitoring a Malware Menagerie” along with Katie Kleemola and Greg Wiseman. Overview

thales_group

thales_group : Thales Group Taxonomy - was designed with the aim of enabling desired sharing and preventing unwanted sharing between Thales Group security communities. Overview

threatmatch

threatmatch : The ThreatMatch Sectors, Incident types, Malware types and Alert types are applicable for any ThreatMatch instances and should be used for all CIISI and TIBER Projects. Overview

threats-to-dns

threats-to-dns : An overview of some of the known attacks related to DNS as described by Torabi, S., Boukhtouta, A., Assi, C., & Debbabi, M. (2018) in Detecting Internet Abuse by Analyzing Passive DNS Traffic: A Survey of Implemented Systems. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 1–1. doi:10.1109/comst.2018.2849614 Overview

tlp

tlp : The Traffic Light Protocol - or short: TLP - was designed with the objective to create a favorable classification scheme for sharing sensitive information while keeping the control over its distribution at the same time. Overview

tor

tor : Taxonomy to describe Tor network infrastructure Overview

trust

trust : The Indicator of Trust provides insight about data on what can be trusted and known as a good actor. Similar to a whitelist but on steroids, reusing features one would use with Indicators of Compromise, but to filter out what is known to be good. Overview

type

type : Taxonomy to describe different types of intelligence gathering discipline which can be described the origin of intelligence. Overview

unified-kill-chain

unified-kill-chain : The Unified Kill Chain is a refinement to the Kill Chain. Overview

use-case-applicability

use-case-applicability : The Use Case Applicability categories reflect standard resolution categories, to clearly display alerting rule configuration problems. Overview

veris

veris : Vocabulary for Event Recording and Incident Sharing (VERIS) Overview

vmray

vmray : VMRay taxonomies to map VMRay Thread Identifier scores and artifacts. Overview

vocabulaire-des-probabilites-estimatives

vocabulaire-des-probabilites-estimatives : Ce vocabulaire attribue des valeurs en pourcentage à certains énoncés de probabilité Overview

workflow

workflow : Workflow support language is a common language to support intelligence analysts to perform their analysis on data and information. Overview

MISP Galaxy

MISP galaxy is a simple method to express a large object called cluster that can be attached to MISP events or attributes. A cluster can be composed of one or more elements. Elements are expressed as key-values. There are default vocabularies available in MISP galaxy but those can be overwritten, replaced or updated as you wish. Existing clusters and vocabularies can be used as-is or as a template. MISP distribution can be applied to each cluster to permit a limited or broader distribution scheme. Many MISP galaxy clusters are already available like Exploit-Kit, Microsoft Activity Group actor, Preventive Measure, Ransomware, TDS, Threat actor or Tool used by adversaries.

The galaxy can be browsed via the web site or downloaded as PDF or directly via the MISP software.